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Computer-aided drafting (CAD) is the use of automated computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is most commonly used to increase and improve the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of the design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing.
Material flow analysis (MFA) is an analytical method used to quantify flows and stocks of materials or substances in a well-defined system.
Typical applications of MFA include the study of material, substance, or product flows across different industrial sectors or within ecosystems.
MFA can also be applied to a single industrial installation.
The finite element analysis (FEA) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions to boundary value problems for partial differential equations.
FEA subdivides a large problem into smaller, simpler, parts, called finite elements. The simple equations that model these finite elements are then assembled into a larger system of equations that models the entire problem.
FEA then uses variational methods from the calculus of variations to approximate a solution by minimizing an associated error function.
Machining involves an important aspect of relative movement between cutting tool and work-piece. In machine tools this is completed by either moving the tool with respect to work-piece or vice versa.
In order to define relative motion of two objects, reference directions are required to be defined.
These reference directions depend on type of machine tool and are defined by considering an imaginary coordinate system on the machine tool. A program defining motion of tool / work-piece in this coordinate system is known as a part program. It is a set of instructions given to a computerized numerical control (CNC) machine to control its operation.